In draft stages. Don’t read – not yet ready for viewing. 10/30/16
Normal Ops and Performance
By Peter Kelly
Weight in pounds ( # )
1,302 # = Empty weight
1,477 # = Weight with 175 # pilot in front seat
1,677 # = adding a rear seat pilot of 200 #
1,874 # = Max allowed total weight
Wing Span = 20 m
Wing area = 15.7 sq m or 169 sq ft
Max allowed Wing Load = 54 kg/sq m or 11.0 # /sq ft
We have a nominal/ typical flying weight of about 1,690 # (1,302 # empty (weighed 4/2016) + 388 # (avg of 194 lbs for each pilot)
1690 # / 169 sq ft = 10.0 #/sq ft = typical wing loading on our local flights here at Williams with two pilots aboard.
If the pilots are lighter or heavier, than a total of 388# you can calculate the wing loading for yourself.
but on average, it’ll be about 10 # per sq ft.
Recommended towing speeds are based upon actual wing loading.
The Flight Manual says in Paragraph 4.5.2:
Recommended towing speed (Para. 4.5.2)
45 kg/m2 9.22 lbs/ft² 120 km/h 64.8 kts 74.6 mph
54 kg/m2 11.1 lbs/ft² 135 km/h 72.9 kts 84.9 mph
Thus, the recommend tow speed is 65 to 70 kts for our tow speed. You should realize that if you are towing at 65 kts and it feels like you are nose high, you may have the flaps in Flaps 2. By selecting Flaps 3 or even Flaps 4 you will see the nose comes down considerably and you may find this a more comfortable tow position. Keep n mind that Flaps 5 and 6 are prohibited while on tow. insert reference for this??
Chart in the manual (paragraph ?) provides stall speeds at each available flap setting, for a weight of 1,653 #.
It is significant that the stall speeds do not cover a very broad range ( 37 to 44 kts).
Flaps — Speed
1 — 44 kts
2 —43 kts
3 — 42 kts
4 — 39 kts
5 — 39 kts
6 — 38 kts
L — 37 kts
From the Manual relating Flap setting to Airspeed:
Extracted from paragraph 5.2.2 (see graphically amended chart below)
Transition Speeds for changing flap setting
Based on Para 5.3.4 and a weight of 1690 #
After thermalling at flaps 5, move from 5 to 4 at 48 kts
as you accelerate change at these speeds:
Thus, at this weight (1690 #), in level flight,
you should be in:
Flaps 3 when 57 kts to 72 kts.
Flaps 2 when 72 kts to 91 kts
However, considering that you are usually in some state of turn or bank, and
not always in level flight, maybe remain in Flaps 3 up to over 75 or even 80 kts on occasion.
Pink line represents a weight of 1690 Lbs.
For example, on the speed ranges – the orange vertical line indicates you should switch to flaps 1 when accelerating to a higher speed.
When accelerating away from a climb, as you pass through about 57 kts (Green line), move flaps from Flaps 4 to Flaps 3.
If you decide to fly above 72 kts (Blue line), then select Flaps 2.
5.3.5 Influence of c.g.-position
The center of gravity dictates the amount of downward force that will be exerted by the tail. We always have a positive C of G, thus it is always ????
but we want to minimize ????
A partial quote:
……………Therefore the best choice
depends on the proportion of time spent in circling and in gliding. With
regard to the total loss of energy during a complete cross country flight,
the optimum c.g. position may vary around 230 – 280 mm (9.1 –
11.0 inch) behind r.p.
(Note: r.p. = Reference Point)
CG with a single 175 # pilot has been calculated to be 12.61 inches.
It can then be estimated that with two pilots aboard, the ship will be in
the best choice range for optimum c.g. of 9.1 to 11.0
Lots of subject areas related to the ASG32.
Associated pages, in alphabetical order.
Last Revised: 10/28/2016